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DENOSA Mpumalanga statement on the attack of a nurse yesterday ...
Tuesday, 19 June 2018
The Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa (DENOSA) in Mpumalanga is disturbed by yesterday’s attack and stabbing of a nurse by a patient inside the facility at Glenmore Clinic, in the Chief Albert Luthuli Sub-District in Gert Sibande region which is a pilot site for National Health Insurance in Mpumalanga and calls for the Department to deploy armed guards in clinics like in hospitals and CHCs.
This recent incident is disturbing because DENOSA always emphasized that securities must do their work; now it’s evident that our nurses are not safe in facilities. We are reminding nurses across Mpumalanga that safety is their right at the workplace and we call on them not to agree to work in an unsafe environment and that they must inform DENOSA should their safety be compromised. We call all progressive forces to join us on the fight for safety in the workplace.
Not long ago, a doctor was shot at Mapulaneng Hospital which prompted the Department to deploy armed guards in hospitals and Community Health Centres (CHCs). But clinics were left out as if a health worker must first be killed or injured before safety issue is looked at.
“As DENOSA, we call on government of Mpumalanga to allow Department of Health in the province to manage safety of facilities,” says DENOSA Mpumalanga Provincial Secretary, Mzwandile Shongwe.
“Because it is evident that the Department of Safety and Security in Mpumalanga has failed to ensure safety in health facilities. We call on the Department of Health in Mpumalanga to stop outsourcing security, even where there outsourced securities, they are always found wanting and not well-resourced, let alone efficient. It’s high time that they insourced security.”
The issue of tenderpreneurs is not meant to assist workers but to loot the state. Patients are killed in health facilities, our members are being assaulted, shot at in the workplace. We call on workers to unite across all spheres to fight for their safety in the workplace which is a right that they enjoy.
Issued by the Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa (DENOSA) in Mpumalanga
For more information, contact:
Mzwandile Shongwe, Mpumalanga Provincial Secretary
Mobile: 079 501 5131 or 072 564 0136
Tel: 013 752 4943
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DENOSA KZN to march to the Premier’s office over poor safety in health facilities ...
Monday, 04 June 2018
The Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa (DENOSA) in KwaZulu-Natal will be marching to the Premier’s office to demand improvement in security in the province’s health facilities following the failure to address the matter by the MEC in the province.
DENOSA had marched previously to the MEC’s office demanding that security be beefed up in health facilities, but up until today there has been not been any improvement.
On Friday a patient was stabbed inside a ward by a visitor. Last week, a nurse was assaulted by a patient in the workplace. “Safety of workers in this province is not attended to. Government leaders are not playing their part in educating communities about stopping these attacks on health workers,” says DENOSA Provincial Secretary, Mandla Shabangu.
“We have situations where normal medical patients are mixed with psychiatric patients who are under 72-hour observations in this province. Patients stay without being diagnosed as psychiatric patients for more than 72 hours, which is a risk to nurses and other patients.”
Recently, a patient was attacked by a psychiatric patient and later died. Everyone is not safe under the current leadership in the department of health in the province.
As a last resort, DENOSA is planning a nurses’ march to the Premier’s office to highlight the plight of lack of safety in our facilities and consequences of not acting on this by government. We are doing this so that the Premier could intervene before many more patients and health workers could die in health facilities.
Issued by the Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa (DENOSA) in KwaZulu-Natal
For more information and comment, contact:
Mandla Shabangu, Provincial Organiser
Mobile: 071 643 3369
Tel: 031 305 1417
Trauma Nursing Matters...
Evidence based practice: Is cricoid pressure effective in preventing gastric aspiration during rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department?
By Ntombifuthi Jennet Ngiba (BN) (UKZN).
There is on-going change within trauma nursing due to increased research in the area. Practices have been routinely adopted as the norm, but subsequently on further examination proven to be useless and more of a risk to the patient (Moore & Lexington, 2012). Research has brought into question practices or techniques such as the application of cricoid pressure during rapid sequence tracheal intubation. This practise was goaled at preventing the regurgitation of gastric content into the pharynx and subsequent aspiration into the pulmonary tree, but now questioned.
Cricoid pressure was briefly defined by Sellick in 1961 as a method used to reduce the risk of aspiration during the induction phase of anaesthesia. Sellick`s technique was to apply backwards pressure to the cricoid cartilage, compressing the oesophagus against the underlying vertebral body (Ellis, Harris & Zideman 2007; Priebe 2005). In this application of pressure the oesophageal lumen is occluded, preventing the passage of regurgitated gastric content into the pharynx and subsequent aspiration into the pulmonary tree (Stewart et al, 2014). Cricoid pressure is incorporated into the overall approach in reducing the chances of aspiration through rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia (Ellis et al., 2007; Priebe 2005). Over the years rapid sequence induction has been adapted by emergency physicians to allow ventilation as required to prevent hypoxia and subsequently termed “rapid sequence tracheal intubation”. Rapid sequence tracheal intubation (RSTI) is now the most widely used technique for tracheal intubation in the emergency department (ED) and cricoid pressure is taught as a standard component of emergency airway management (Ellis et al., 2007).
Despite inadequate scientific evaluation of the risks and benefits of cricoid pressure it is adopted as an integral component of rapid sequence intubation in EDs. No randomised controlled trials have shown any benefit of its use during rapid sequence intubation (Trethewy, Burrows, Clausen & Doherty, 2012). Furthermore, the application of cricoid pressure may be linked to increased risks to the patient such as impeding airway management, prolonging intubation time by concealing laryngeal view, inducing nausea/vomiting and oesophageal rupture with excessive force (Ellis et al., 2007; Priebe 2005;Trethewy, et al, 2012). Paradoxically, cricoid pressure may promote aspiration by relaxing the lower part of the oesophagus (Ellis et al., 2007). Some case reports note that tracheal intubation was impeded by cricoid pressure and regurgitation occurred despite application of cricoid pressure, possibly due to its improper application (Trethewy, et al, 2012). According to Bhatia, Bhagat and Sen (2014) the application of cricoid pressure increases the incidence of lateral displacement of the oesophagus from 53% to 91%.
However despite this evidence and the outcome of Trethwy’s (2012) RCT the judicial system appears guided in its judgement by outdated practises. A judge in UK ruled against an anaesthesiologist for failing to apply cricoid pressure to a patient with irreducible hernia who had regurgitated and aspirated. The judge argued that “We cannot assert that cricoid pressure is not effective until trials have been performed, especially as it is an integral part of anaesthetic technique that has been associated with a reduced maternal death rate from aspiration since the 1960's” (Bhatia et al. 2014). Therefore one may say that despite cricoid pressure entering medical practice on limited evidence and only supported by common sense, it somehow remains the practice of choice (Bhatia et al., 2014).
Thus it is about time nurses and doctors embrace evidence-based practice within the emergency department and let go of traditional practice that are proven to do more harm than good. There is still a great need for further evidence-based practice within the emergency department, to investigate the validity of the notion that cricoid pressure prevents regurgitation.
Ntombifuthi Jennet Ngiba is a Professional Nurse at Greytown Hospital.
Bhatia N, Bhagat H & Sen I. (2014). Cricoid pressure: Where do we stand? J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol, Vol 30 pp 3 – 6.
Ellis D.Y, Harris T & Zideman D. (2007). Cricoid pressure in the emergency department rapid sequence tracheal intubations: a risk-benefit analysis. American College of emergency physicians.Vol 50, pp 653 – 665.
Moore K & Lexington K.Y (2012). Evidence-based practise guidelines for trauma care. Journal of emergency nursing. Vol 38, pp 401-402.
Priebe H.J, (2005). Cricoid pressure: an alternative view. Elsevier. Germany.
Stewart J.C, Bhananker S, & Ramaiah R. (2014). Rapid-sequence intubation and cricoid pressure. J Crit Illn Inj Sci, Vol 4, pp 42 - 49.
Trethewy C.E, Burrows J.M, Clausen D & Doherty S.R. (2012). Effectiveness of cricoid pressure in preventing gastric aspiration during rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BioMedCentral. Australia. Retrieved 04 August 2016: http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/13/1/17
National changes in nursing training: South African perspectives 2015...
Dr. Respect Mondli Miya,(D.Lit et Phil)
Senior Lecturer: Psychiatry at Durban University of Technology, Department of Nursing Science
Nursing is a career of love rooted in rich and fertile soil governed by caring ideologies and philosophies. Individuals within the profession have strong and inexplicable desires to serve and preserve humanity at all cost. The nursing profession drives the health care system and is forever in the forefront of preventing, promoting and management of various diseases. Nurses have always been there and have survived trials and tribulations. Nursing demands not only the brain for cognitive purposes but a humble heart, selflessness in daily duty execution. An individual without passion for the sick will never survive a minute of nursing’s demanding tasks.
Nursing novices are professionally socialized and groomed on their first day of training. Noble traditions of nursing are gradually unpacked and monitored up to graduation to enhance relevance and dignity of nursing profession. Nursing demands the utmost respect for humanity even after death itself. Most professions have minimum set of working hours yet nursing philosophy calls and promotes dedication beyond duty. Nursing is a way of living not just mere qualification written on papers but lived and experienced charisma.
Historically, nursing was viewed as a religious vocation and was predominantly religious in nature which explains chapels, and meditation designated facilities utilized for prayers before commencing daily duties in old hospitals. Nursing training in South Africa before 1976 was hospital-based hence the notion of viewing nursing as a “hands-on” career has been accepted nationally and acknowledged by most prolific nursing scholars who remain sceptical to have nursing pitched at a degree level and offered in higher training of education in South Africa.
Such training exposed and subjected nurses to poor recognition as a career. Nurses were abused and viewed as medical officers’ hand maids who were good for nothing but to offer a bed pan, bathing the sick, and carry orders as prescribed without being objective. The training at that time was strict and limiting, even the scope of practice was limited and nobody could imagine a degree in nursing or university based nursing teaching and learning. Hospitals mostly trained nurses in general nursing and later midwifery.
Around 1987, nursing in South Africa was gradually introduced in tertiary education system and scope of practice and curriculum were amended. Nursing graduates were introduced to a 4-year degree obtaining general, psychiatry, midwifery and community health nursing. That made older nurses to feel bitter and never fully accepted university graduates as satisfactorily trained. Even medical officers were threatened and witness role change from nurses as hand maids into fully recognized members of the multidisciplinary health team with independent roles and functionality. These changes failed to bridge the gap of scope of practice and remuneration packages. Even to this date, the university and hospital trained nurses earn the same salary and follow same stream of training regulated by the same nursing Act 50 of 1978 as amended with specification stipulated in Regulation 425 (R.425).
The nursing act 33 of 2005 introduced community service of one year post- training for both hospital- and university-trained individuals. Errors still exist within the nursing education such as same recognition of a hospital and university trained graduate have similar scope of practice, universities are allowed to implement R425 differently. For example, some South African universities train students for six months in midwifery while others dedicate two full years for midwifery and three years for community health nursing which is offered for six months in colleges and some universities. The problem in South Africa is that there is one R.425 and implemented differently from one university to the other.
The current health ministry is proposing nursing training restructurization. In the proposal dated 23 July 2015, it recommends reintroduction of the old nursing training system with a hope of extending the nursing training duration and to phase out the R.425 of Act 50 (1978). The current proposal overlooks scope of practice and remuneration packages of such graduates irrespective of their qualification which is an error not even Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD) could resolve in 2007. OSD failed to address issues of salaries in the nursing fraternity; an obvious error is that a nursing lecturer is graded as a nursing specialist.
The unresolved question here is: Who teaches the other? And why do they earn same salary if the other is a teacher? Up to the very same date, the public health system continues to fail to distinguish university graduates from hospital nursing graduates yet continues to differentiate auxiliary social worker from a University graduate Social Worker, and experienced Medical Officer from a Master of Medicine graduate. Why not with nursing in South Africa?
The proposed training changes are as follows: general nursing and midwifery be done in a college over a period of four years without indicating whether that shall be Bachelor of nursing offered in a college which can never materialize as colleges do not offer degrees but universities do. If agreed upon, this will mean degrading the dignity of nursing as a profession over medicine which continues to be offered in the university without interruptions.
According to the proposed plan, nursing training is extended to 9 years (four year of midwifery and general, 18 months of psychiatry and one year of community health) which is unnecessary waste of time for an undergraduate qualification yet medicines years of training have been reduced to 5 years (MBCHB).
There is absolutely no need for such drastic changes in the nursing education. It is alarming to witness MBCHB years of training have been reduced to five years and get paid a satisfactory remuneration package compared to Bachelor of Nursing graduates with stagnant remuneration. The introduction of Masters Degree in Medicines in South Africa is preparing sound clinical researchers and such projects (thesis and dissertations) are evaluated by nursing professors who in turn receive less recognition and degrading salaries compared to MMed graduates.
The South African health system requires the following:
1. Strong and vocal task team of nursing professors who shall preserve the image and dignity of nursing as a profession and strongly oppose plans to change nursing training.
2. No college shall be allowed to offer a bachelor of nursing, strictly universities only.
3. Salary packages to be reviewed and sort clear distinction of a university graduate over a hospital trained graduate.
4. Revised scope of practice, degree holders be given more opportunity to execute complex clinical procedures and be given better remuneration packages.
5. Chief Nursing Officer to be more vocal and avoid external influences to disorganise nursing training.
6. Hospitals to create portfolios and acceptable remuneration packages for all nursing qualifications from a diploma to PHD level.
7. All South African universities to adopt and implement similar training structure that is two years of midwifery, two years of psychiatry and two years of community health nursing
8. Develop a Nursing Ministry by nurses with nurses and for nurses.
9. MBCHB degree be afforded same status as B.Cur degree thereafter if need be.
10. South African nursing council to be headed by prolific PHD holders and nursing qualifications be regulated and registered up to PHD level.
11. Any qualification obtained outside university be regarded as either associate professional nurse and associated medical office until related exam has been endorsed by the regulating body.
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